Dating wire wound glass trade beads imo and ecdis mandating

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It’s a real challenge to research trade beads in general.

There are so many different kinds of beads, and the stories, wow!

Glass at a temperature high enough to make it workable, or "ductile", is laid down or wound around a steel wire or mandrel coated in a clay slip called "bead release." The wound bead, while still hot, may be further shaped by manipulating with graphite, wood, stainless steel, brass, tungsten or marble tools and paddles.

This process is called marvering, originating from the French word "marbrer" which translates to "marble".

In Montana, Fort Union was established by the American Fur Company and had 300 free trappers working for it by 1831.

The styles and colors are almost the same as Fort George (Davis, 1973).

Fort George, located in northeastern Alberta, was in operation during 1792-1800.

Some of the different types of beads traded during this period were: long and small white, all colors and sizes of round, and barley corn beads (Ray, 1974).

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Probably the earliest beads of true glass were made by the winding method.

It’s very hard to pin point a date because one book says one thing and another book says something different. I’ve been collecting beads for over 15 years and have quite a collection.

I always learn more every year, and lately, since doing this article, I’ve learned a lot.

The Spanish explorer Hernando Cortéz landed on the coast of Mexico in the spring of 1519.

His ships carried glass beads along with other European trade goods.

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